It is celebrated on January 25 of each year.
Saint Gregory the Theologian was born in 329 AD. in Arianzo, a town of Cappadocia, by Gregory, bishop of Nazianzu (January 1) and Nonna (August 5). She has two brothers: Caesarius (see March 9) and her famously pious sister Gorgonia (see February 23). In Nazianzus, he is taught elementary education, while secondary education in Caesarea, where he meets his classmate Basil the Great (see January 1). Then he goes to famous teachers of rhetoric in Palestine and Alexandria and finally to the Universities of Athens. His studies lasted 13 whole years (from 17 to 30 years old). After studying in Athens, Grigorios returns to his homeland, although he was offered a position as a University Professor.
There, his father, Bishop of Nazianzu, ordains him as an elder. But St. Gregory prefers the quiet of the retreat in Pontus, near his friend Basil, for more exercise in the spiritual life. However, after the fervent pleas of his family, he returned to his homeland and entered the active activity of the Church. At the age of 43, God elevated him to the episcopal office. His seat was designated the region of the Sasimos which he never shepherded because of its Martian inhabitants. But death comes to hurt his soul, with successive deaths of relatives. First of Caesarius’ brother, then of Gorgonia’s sister, then of his father, and finally of Nonna’s mother. After these tribulations, divine Providence brings him to Constantinople (378 AD), where he defends Orthodoxy in an amazing way and slays the Arians, who had flooded Constantinople.
The situation was very difficult. All the temples of Vasilevusa were in the hands of the heretics. But the Saint does not despair. He turns a room in the house where he was hosted into a temple and gives it a symbolic name. He calls the church Agia Anastasia a sign that he believed in the resurrection of the Orthodox Faith. Racing is dangerous. The heretics on the roofs of their houses throw stones at him and thus Saint Gregory is greatly tested. In the church of Agia Anastasia he delivers the famous five theological discourses that rightfully gave him the title of Theologian. After this hard struggle, Theodosius the Great made him Patriarch of Constantinople (381 AD). The Second Ecumenical Council recognized him as its President. But a portion of bishops oppose him for a trivial reason.
Then Gregory, disgusted, declares his resignation, departs to his birthplace Arianzos and ends his life in peace, in 390 AD. Saint Gregory the Theologian left a great literary work. Of particular interest are his philosophical 408 poems of approximately 18,000 verses. He is one of the greatest spirits of Christianity and one of the brightest athletes of the Orthodox faith. His holy bier is kept in the Holy Monastery of Vatopedi, on Mount Athos, while his holy shroud is kept in the Church of the same name in Nea Karvali.